Sabtu, 25 Desember 2010

16 Tenses in Grammar




1. Simple Present Tense ( S + Infinitive / Infinitive(s/es) )



( + ) S + V1 + C
( - ) S + DO NOT/DOES NOT + V1 + C
( ? ) DO/DOES + S + V1 + C
Example :
( + ) I live in tangerang
( - ) I do not live in tangerang
( ? ) do I live in tangerang ?
The simple Present tense is :
- Used in Habit Action
‘She usually eats noodle for breakfast’
- stating the general truth that cannot be denied
‘The sun rises in the east’
Note : Infinitive does not change if preceded by the auxiliary verb (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, do, does, did).
‘He can speak english’



2. Present Continous Tense ( S + to be (am, is, are) + Present Participle (ing))



( + ) S + TO BE + V-ing + C
( - ) S + TO BE + NOT + V-ing + C
( ? ) TO BE + S + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) you are taking my book
( - ) you are not taking my book
( ? ) are you taking my book ?
- Expression action in progress
‘I am studying english’
- Stating a temporary action.
‘She is reading now, but will write soon’
- Stating acts referred to in the future.
‘They are writing again in a few week’










3. Present Perfect Tense ( S + have/has + Past Participle )



( + ) S + HAVE/HAS + V3 + C
( - ) S + HAVE/HAS + NOT + V3 + C
( ? ) HAVE/HAS + S + V3 + C
Example :
( + ) andi has left his car
( - ) andi has not left his car
( ? ) has andi left his car ?
- Stating activities conducted the past and still noting to do with the present, but it did not last.
‘I have taught english for one week’  waktu kejadian tidak jelas.
- Declare the event that have occurred.
‘She has eaten’
- Indicates an action replay on indefinite period of time before now. The word ar often used : before, already, ever, never, yet.
‘I’ve heard before’
‘She has never been there before’
- Indicates action completed in short time. The word are often used : at last, finally, just, recently.
‘The time at last arrived’






4. Present Perfect Continous Tense ( S + have/has +been + Present Participle (ing) )



( + ) S + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + V-ing + C
( - ) S + HAVE/HAS + NOT + BEEN + V-ing + C
( ? ) HAVE/HAS + S + BEEN + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) me and my family have been taking bath in river
( - ) me and my family have not been taking bath in river
( ? ) have me and my family been taking bath in river ?
- Stating works commencing on the past and has continued until now.
‘We have been waiting for you since eight o’clock’














5. Past Tense ( S + Past Tense )



( + ) S + V2 + C
( - ) S + DID NOT + V1 + C
( ? ) DID + S + V1+ C
Example :
( + ) ikhsan bought a bag
( - ) ikhsan did not buy a bag
( ? ) did ikhsan buy a bag ?
- Stating acts which was completed in the past ( time to clear )
‘She came here last month’














6. Past Continous Tense ( She + was/were + Present Participle (ing) )



( + ) S + WAS/WERE + V-ing + C
( - ) S + WAS/WERE + NOT + V-ing + C
( ? ) WAS/WERE + S + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) the cat was eating a fish
( - ) the cat was not eating a fish
( ? ) was the cat eating a fish ?
- Stating acts which has already begun and is still going on when the other acts followed in the past.
‘When I came to his home, he was playing computer’
-Stating action is happening in the past.
‘He was watching TV all afternoon yesterday’











7. Past Perfect Tense ( S + had + Past Participle )



( + ) S + HAD + V3 + C
( - ) S + HAD + NOT + V3 + C
( ? ) HAD + S + V3 + C
Example :
( + ) we had locked the door
( - ) we had not locked the door
( ? ) had we locked the door ?
- Stating acts that have been completed before any other act done in the past.
‘When my mother went, I had cleaned that room’.
‘He told me has name after I had asked him twice’
Note : The Past Perfect should be used if an act is past time is earlier than the other acts.
The first act is finished, we use The Past Perfect, and deed that we both use The Past Tense.











8. Past Perfect Continous ( S + had + been + Present Participle (ing) )



( + ) S + HAD + BEEN + V-ing + C
( - ) S + HAD + NOT + V-ing + C
( ? ) HAD + S + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) amie had been loving anie
( - ) amie had not been loving anie
( ? ) had amie been loving anie ?
- Indicate the action that goes in the past
‘When I finished my dinner, he had been playing guitar’
‘When I came to Surabaya in 1980, he had already been living there about five years’













9. Future Tense ( S + will/shall + Infinitive )



( + ) S + WILL/SHALL + V1 + C
( - ) S + WILL/SHALL + NOT + V1 + C
( ? ) WILL/SHALL + S + V1 + C
Example :
( + ) my mother will come this night
( - ) my mother will not come this night
( ? ) will may mother come this night ?
-Declare acts to be performade in the future.
‘She will review that lesson’
‘I shall go wih you’














10. Future Continous Tense ( S + will/shall + be + Present Participle (ing) )



( + ) S + WILL/SHALL + BE + V-ing + C
( - ) S + WILL/SHALL + NOT + BE + V-ing + C
( ? ) WILL/SHALL + S + BE + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) you will be saving my money
( - ) you will be not saving my money
( ? ) will you be saving my money ?
- Indicate the action which will be taking place time to clear
‘At this time tomorrow, I shall be getting exam’
‘He will be studying at eight o’clock tomorrow’














11. Future Perfect Tense ( S + will/shall + have + Past Participle )



( + ) S + WILL/SHALL + HAVE + V3 + C
( - ) S + WILL/SHALL + NOT + HAVE + V3 + C
( ? ) WILL/SHALL + S + HAVE + V3 + C
Example :
( + ) unun will have played the doll
( - ) unun will not have played the doll
( ? ) will unun have played the doll ?
- Stating act which has already begun in the past and will be completed in the future.
‘By next week, I shall have read this book’
‘Shinta will have done this work by the end of this week’












12. Future Perfect Continous Tense ( S + will/shall + have + been + Present Participle )



( + ) S + WILL/SHALL + HAVE + BEEN + Ving
( - ) S + WILL/SHALL + HAVE + NOT + BEEN + Ving
( ? ) WILL/SHALL + S + HAVE + BEEN + Ving
Example :
( + ) igo will have been walking
( - ) igo will not have been walking
( ? ) will igo have been walking ?
- Same as Tha Future Perfect, but there is a possibility that action continued in the future.
‘By the end of this year, we shall have been studying Korean language for three years’













13. Past Future Tense ( S + would/should + Infinitive )



( + ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + V1 + C
( - ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + NOT + V1 + C
( ? ) WOULD/SHOULD + S + V1 + C
Example :
( + ) ade would run on the street
( - ) ade would not run on the street
( ? ) would ade run on the street ?
- Stating act which will be done in the past.
‘They would go to Balik Papan the following day’
‘He would buy a car the previous day’














14. Past Future Continous Tense ( S + would/should + be + Present Pariciple (ing) )



( + ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + BE + V-ing + C
( - ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + NOT + BE + V-ing + C
( ? ) WOULD/SHOULD + S + BE + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) iqoh would be traveling to America
( - ) iqoh would not be traveling to America
( ? ) would iqoh be traveling to America ?
- Stating that will act beingdone in the past.
‘I should be taking an examination at this time the following day’














15. Past Future Perfect Tense ( S + would/should + have + Past Participle )



( + ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + HAVE + V3 + C
( - ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + NOT + HAVE + V3 + C
( ? ) WOULD/SHOULD + S + HAVE + V3 + C
Example :
( + ) I would have studied English
( - ) I would not have studied English
( ? ) would I have studied English ?
- Stating supposition that can not happen because the conditions that will certainly not be met, but only as a conditional requirement was met in the past.
‘He would have graduated, if he had studied hard’
In fact : He didn’t graduated.












16. Past Future Perfect ( S + would/should + have + been + Present Participle (ing) )



( + ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing + C
( - ) S + WOULD/SHOULD + NOT + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing + C
( ? ) WOULD/SHOULD + S + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing + C
Example :
( + ) the horse would have been drinking in pool
( - ) the horse would not have been drinking in pool
( ? ) would the horse have been drinking inn pool ?
- Same as Future Perfect Tense, but in the past tense.
‘By last Lebaran, I should have been working at that office for five years’
‘By the end of the month last semester, Zahra would have been studying computeritation at Gunadarma University for three years’












“English is the world’s
so in english we can hold the world”




Created By :


Musliha Malikah

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Kau Inspirasi ( cerpen )



“Aku tak tahu lagi harus bagaimana padahal aku sudah sangat berusaha agar aku dapat membuat karya besar lagi…!!”.keluh seorang penulis ternama pada editornya
“coba kau periksa lagi karya mu itu,aku tidak mungkin menerbitkan karya yang tidak berbobot,karna itu akan merugikan ku.”jawab sang editor
“…….aku pergi..!!!”
Ia menundukan kepalanya dan beranjak dari kursi yang ia duduki,
“Hei..jangan lupa kau bawa karyamu yang tak berguna ini,kau harus tahu,namamu akan jatuh dari dunia karya tulis..!!!!”.
Sang penulis tadi dengan cepat mengbil artikelnya dari meja editor
“Aku berhenti menerbitkan karyaku di perusahaanmu..!!!!”
“O…silahkan,lagi pula kau sudah tak berguna lagi”.celetuk sang editor
“Aku bukan alat……!!akan kubuktikan aku dapat menciptakan karya terbaik & tak akan membutuhkan editor lagi…,”
Dengan perasaan kesal ia keluar dari ruangan editor dan pergi menuju kediamannya,dalam perjalanannya ia terus berkeluh-kesah…dengan hati bimbang dan gunda yang menyelimuti.

Ia adalah Karin,gadis indo yang imajinasinya sangat tinggi,karna karya-karyanya yang amat hebat namanya meledak di kalangan penulis-penulis terkenal,ia juga seorang muslimah yang ulet dalam beribadah,setiap malam ia selalu bermunajat kepada allah meminta ridho akan karya-karyanya.
Tapi kali ini karya-karyanya sama sekali tak di minati oleh para editor,ia tak tahu kenapa mendadak seperti itu,kejadian yang sama sekali tidak ia ketahui apa penyebabnya.

Sesampainya di rumah……
Dengan langkah gontai ia menuju kamar pribadinya,tempat dimana ia menciptakan karya-karya yang luar biasa.Tubuhnya yang tak kuasa menahan lelah ia rebahkan diatas kasur,pandangannya lurus menatap langit-langit kamar,sambil berbisik..
“Apa kesalahannya..??apa salahku,berkali-kali aku menunjukan karanganku,berkali-kali pula editor-editor itu menolaknya,apa..sampai disini saja karir hidupku,..tapi hanya ini yang bisa kita lakukan.”
Tiba-tiba terdengar deringan telepon dari arah ruang tamu,dengan sedikit malas ia menuju asal suara itu & perlahan mengangkat teleponnya…
“Assalamualaikum..!”.ucap Karin
“Wa alaikumsalam.!karin.,ini ummah,sekarang lagi sibuk ga’?”
“….emang ada apa sih?”
“kayanya kamu lagi ga’ semangat ya…suaranya lesu banget.”
“ngga’ ko..!!”
“aku tau situasi Karin sekarang,jadi ga’ usah disembunyiin ..kita kan dah lama sahabatan”
Karin merekahkan senyumnya ketika ia mendengar penuturan sahabatnya tadi,kemudian ia meneruskan percakapannya,
“kamu emang sahabat terbaikku…”
“tentu aja.!O,ya..kamu lagi ga’ ada acara kan rin,ikut aku yaa..lagian kamu lagi penatkan..”
“kemana..??”
“pokoknya ikut aja ya…Assalamualaikum!.”
“wa…wa alaikumsalam…”
Suasana hati Karinpun agak membaik,ia berfikir..”mungkin ummah mempunyai sebuah solusii untukku,ia selalu tahu jalan terbaik untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah”.



Esoknya……
“kita mau kemana?,”Tanya Karin
“kamu tau syafiq?,”jawab ummah
“Mm…dia teman sealumni kita kan,kenapa dia?”
“kamu juga pasti tau siapa dia,teman kita yang sangat mengerti masalah batin dari zhahirnya,ia seseorang yang amat bijaksana,taqwa dan sempurna di mata manusia,walau ia orang yang amat diam tapi jika ada yang butuh bantuannya dia pasti bersedia”
“lalu apa hubungannya denganku?”
“Minta pendapatnya,mungkin dia bisa bantu..!”
Karin mengerutkan keningnya dan menatap ummah bingung
“coba saja,kan ga’ ada ruginya..!!”
“hmm…akan ku coba!”
“Bagus..aku sering melihatnya duduk di bangku taman pada jam ini,tapi jangan bersikap seperti mencarinya,sambil mai-main di taman saja..ok!”
“…hmm aku mengerti.!,”
Karin dan ummah menuju taman kota dengan niat mencari teman mereka,yang mereka yakini dapat membantu masalah Karin.,sesampainya di taman….
“lihat ia sedang duduk di bangku taman itu,sepertinya ia sedang menghafal al-qur’an,” jelas ummah
“aku takut mengganggunya ,”
“kau lewat saja di depannya,lalu menyapanya,selanjutnya….terserah Karin.”
“baiklah aku akan coba..”
“aku pulang duluan yaa..”
“kau tak ikut denganku??”
“aku tak bisa maaf ya Karin…”
Karin memandang ummah mengungkapkan keraguannya untuk menemui syafiq,tapi ummah meyakinkannya,maka dengan langkah yang penuh giroh Karin menuju tempat dimana seorang syafiq duduk,akhirnya…ia sampai di tempat itu, ia menghentikan langkahnya tepat di depan syafiq,…ia menolehkan kepalanya dan menyapa syafiq..
“assalamualaikum…”
“wa alaikumsalam…afwan yaa ukhty man anti?”
“nasyita ilaya yaa akh..???ana Karin temen sealumni antum..!!”
“laa ba’sya…!afwan,ana ngeganggu hafalan antum ya!”
“ah…ngga’!!”
Mereka terdiam,keheninganpun menyelimuti,namun syafiq memecahkan keheningan itu dengan pertanyaan yang membuat Karin terkejut.
“Karin punya masalah ya…!!masalah yang amat membingungkan…,”
Karin hanya terdiam sambil menatap tak percaya pada syafiq dan bertanya-tanya dalam hatinya.”ke..kenapa ia tahu..???”
Rasa ketidak percayaan itu tak dapat ia pungkiri,ia tetap terdiam dan mendengarkan apa yang dikatakan oleh syafiq
“padahal hanya satu yang menimbulkan masalah itu,anti Cuma lupa pada seseorang yang amat penting,hanya itu,tapi lupa padanya adalah suatu hal yang amat buruk,anti lupa padanya sampai tak pernah sama sekali menyapanya dan menyabut namanya,padahal ia yang akan memberi syafaat di hari kiamat nanti,..itu…hanya itu,jika kau belum menyadarinya juga itu amat keterlaluan,”
Syafiq beranjak dari bangku taman yang ia duduki
“sepertinya aku harus pergi…”
Syafiq melangkahkan kakinya
“syafiq….syukron”
“afwan….”
Ia terus berjalan ,berlalu dari hadapan Karin,akan tetapi Karin masih terpaku,diam membisu,ia menegakankan kepalanya dan terlihatlah wajahnya yang penuh dengan air mata,ia berlari menuju rumahnya,sambil berkata-kata,
“kenapa aku masih belum sadar….aku melupakannya….aku telah lupa…pada siapa …aku sangat keterlaluan,”
Malamnya ia terus bermunajat pada allah,memohon bantuannya,agar ia ingat dengan semua yang ia lupakan,ia terus menangis & ia tertidur dalam permohonannya…
Lalu ia bermimpi,dalam mimpinya…ia melihat seseorang di depannya yang amat bercahaya bahkan melebihi cahaya matahari tapi ia membelakangi Karin,lalu Karin bertanya..
“siapakah engkau wahai tuan?….engkau amat bercahaya..,”
“aku Rasulullah..,”
Karin tersentak kaget,
“ya Rasulullah…aku ummat mu…mengapa engkau membelakangi ku..?,idzinkan aku menatap wajahmu ya habiballah…”
“tapi aku tak mengenalmu….kau bukan ummatku..”
“aku ummatmu ya Rasulullah…aku ummatmu..!!”
Karin terbangun dari tidurnya,dengan mimpinya itu akhirnya Karin sadar akan kesalahannya,satu kesalahan yang amat besar,ia terus larut dalam kesedihan dan terus mengulangi perkataan dalam mimpinya tadi..
“aku ummatmu ya Rasulullah…!!!aku mengerti aku tak pernah menyapanya dan menyebut namanya itu berarti aku tak pernah bersholawat kepadanya,ialah yang memberi syafaat dihari kiamat nanti,ialah Rasulullah,semua yang ku lakukan jadi tidak berkah..!!!”
اللهم صلى على محمد......يا ربي صلى عليه وسلم
اللهم صلي وسلم وبارك عليك......

Sepanjang waktunya ia selalu bersholawat tak alfa satu hari pun,sejak saat itulah kehidupannya berubah dan inspirasinya dari rasulullah ,ia sadari selama ini karyanya hanya tentang dunia &kali ini ia menciptakan karya yang seluruhnya mencakup akhirat,semuanya menjadi berkah,rasa senang pun tak luput dari hatinya,
suatu malam dalam sujudnya ia mensyukuri apa yang telah terjadi padanya & tentu ia tak melupakan rasulnya,ia pun tertidur & bermimpi…dalam mimpinya,ia kembali melihat seseorang di hadapannya yang amat bercahaya akan tetapi kali ini tak membelakanginya…..ya..ialah Rasulullah,lalu Karin berkata..
“aku ummatmu..ya Rasulullah,aku ummatmu..,”
“ya…aku telah mengenal mu…kau adalah ummatku…”
Rasa bahagia yang sangat dahsyat yang tentu saja tak dapat Karin ungkapkan dengan kata-kata..air matanya tak dapat terbendung lagi,mimpi yang sangat indah itu….suatu yang nyata dalam hidupnya.
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